共济会

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那些改变自己实质观点的人即使是被强迫的,也已经套上了思想的枷锁。--托洛茨基
8500 - Milano - Palazzo Borgazzi (1829) - Dettaglio - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto, 31-Aug-2007.jpg

共济会出现在18世纪的英国,是一种带宗教色彩的兄弟会组织,也是目前世界上最庞大的秘密组织,他们自称宣扬博爱和慈善思想,以及美德精神,追求人类生存意义。世界上众多著名人士和政治家都是共济会成员。

语录[编辑]

  • 为什么有商人、艺术家、银行家、官员和律师,从十七世纪20年代左右,开始自称石匠和试图重现中世纪行会的仪式?所有这些奇怪的化装舞会是什么呢?渐渐地,画面变得更加清晰。旧的公会不仅仅是一个生产组织,它还规范了其成员的道德和生活方式。它完全融入城市人口的生活,尤其是公半工匠和半的建筑艺术家。公会制度的瓦解带来了一个几乎没有从中世纪出现的社会的道德危机。新道德形成的速度比旧的要慢得多。因此,尝试,在历史上很常见,保持一种道德纪律时,它的社会基础,在这种情况下,那些工业行会,早已被历史的进程破坏了。活性砌体成为理论砌体。但旧的道德生活方式,男人试图保持只是为了保持他们,获得了一个新的意义。在共济会的某些分支,一个明显的反动封建元素突出,在苏格兰系统。在第十八世纪,共济会成为表达了启蒙的激进政策,如在光照的情况下,他们是革命的先驱;在它的左边,它最终在烧炭党。共济会计算他们的成员路易斯十六的断头机是谁发明了断头台在博士。在德国南部,一个公开的共济会认为革命的性质,而在凯瑟琳的伟大是一种伪装反映贵族和官僚阶层的法院。共济会他被放逐到西伯利亚的共济会的皇后。虽然我们每天的廉价成衣几乎没有人还穿着他爷爷的外套,在思想的外套和衬布的世界仍然流行。思想是代代相传的,虽然,像祖母的枕头和被单,他们散发着臭气。即使是那些有义务改变他们的意见的物质,迫使他们进入古老的模具。在工业革命已经超过它在思想更深远的多,在计件工资优先的新结构。这就是为什么小资产阶级的法国议员还没找到更好的方式创造道德关系着人们一起对抗现代关系的破坏比穿上白色的围裙和武装自己与圆规或铅垂线。他们真的在思考,而不是建立一个新的建筑,而不是寻找他们的方式回到过去的议会或外交部。
    • 俄译英:Why had the merchants, artists, bankers, officials, and lawyers, from the first quarter of the seventeenth century on, begun to call themselves masons and tried to recreate the ritual of the medieval guilds? What was all this strange masquerade about? Gradually the picture grew clearer. The old guild was more than a producing organization; it regulated the ethics and mode of life of its members as well. It completely embraced the life of the urban population, especially the guilds of semi-artisans and semi-artists of the building trades. The break-up of the guild system brought a moral crisis in a society which had barely emerged from medieval. The new morality was taking shape much more slowly than the old was being cut down. Hence, the attempt, so common in history, to preserve a form of moral discipline when its social foundations, which in this instance were those of the industrial guilds, had long since been undermined by the processes of history. Active masonry became theoretical masonry. But the old moral ways of living, which men were trying to keep just for the sake of keeping them, acquired a new meaning. In certain branches of freemasonry, elements of an obvious reactionary feudalism were prominent, as in the Scottish system. In the eighteenth century, freemasonry became expressive of a militant policy of enlightenment, as in the case of the Illuminati, who were the forerunners of revolution; on its left, it culminated in the Carbonari. Freemasons counted among their members both Louis XVI and the Dr. Guillotin who invented the guillotine. In southern Germany, freemasonry assumed an openly revolutionary character, whereas at the court of Catherine the Great it was a masquerade reflecting the aristocratic and bureaucratic hierarchy. A freemason Novikov was exiled to Siberia by a freemason empress.Although in our day of cheap and ready-made clothing hardly anybody is still wearing his grandfather’s surtout, in the world of ideas the surtout and the crinoline are still in fashion. Ideas are handed down from generation to generation, although, like grandmother’s pillows and covers, they reek of staleness. Even those who are obliged to change the substance of their opinions force them into ancient moulds. The revolution in industry has been much more far-reaching than it has in ideas, where piecework is preferred to new structures. That is why the French parliamentarians of the petty bourgeoisie could find no better way of creating moral ties to hold the people together against the disruptiveness of modern relations than to put on white aprons and arm themselves with a pair of compasses or a plumbline. They were really thinking less of erecting a new building than of finding their way back into the old one of parliament or ministry.
    • 托洛茨基《我的生活:托洛茨基自传 》, 第八章:第一次坐牢
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